is the process of bringing forward a civil lawsuit. One person (the plaintiff) is demanding that another person (the defendant) take specific actions to remedy the suit. The defendant may present a counterclaim to the plaintiff’s civil action. A dispute using litigation (or arbitration) can be long, taking several months and years and involving a judge, arbitrator, or jury imposing a decision on the parties that results in a judgement, award, or verdict. In the adversarial processes, there is usually a winner and a loser. Arbitration or litigation can also be very expensive.